ExoPlayer Hacks: Part 2 – Improved Buffering

This is 2nd post in ExoPlayer Hacks series, if you are wondering what was there in Part1, you can catch it up here.

What about Buffering?

OK there is nothing wrong with way Buffering is handled in Exo, but when I went through DefaultLoadControl component it seems that buffering policy is constrained. I will explain how part in detail later. When asked why, one of the Exo developers responded as below

“There are arguments that mobile carriers prefer this kind of traffic pattern over their networks (i.e. bursts rather than drip-feeding). Which is an important consideration given ExoPlayer is used by some very popular services. It may also be more battery efficient.”

though default policy seem to work in general, it might not be sufficient for all scenarios.

In my case I have to increase the buffer to 2-3 minutes on our TV platform with only 2 renditions available which means rendition switch wont happen too often.

First, let’s understand current Buffer policy

Default Buffer Policy

 * The default minimum duration of media that the player will attempt to ensure is buffered at all
 * times, in milliseconds.
public static final int DEFAULT_MIN_BUFFER_MS = 15000;
 * The default maximum duration of media that the player will attempt to buffer, in milliseconds.
public static final int DEFAULT_MAX_BUFFER_MS = 30000;
 * The default duration of media that must be buffered for playback to start or resume following a
 * user action such as a seek, in milliseconds.
public static final int DEFAULT_BUFFER_FOR_PLAYBACK_MS = 2500;
 * The default duration of media that must be buffered for playback to resume after a rebuffer,
 * in milliseconds. A rebuffer is defined to be caused by buffer depletion rather than a user
 * action.
public static final int DEFAULT_BUFFER_FOR_PLAYBACK_AFTER_REBUFFER_MS  = 5000;

Out of above 4 constants, 2 of them control the load timing and the other two control when the playback starts by having sufficient buffering. Please refer to the figure below.

The maxBufferUs & minBufferUs are about the load timing but bufferForPlaybackAfterRebufferUs & bufferForPlaybackUs are about when the playback starts by having sufficient buffering.


Refer to shouldContinueLoading(), a typical loading pattern includes 3 stages.

public boolean shouldContinueLoading(long bufferedDurationUs) {
  int bufferTimeState = getBufferTimeState(bufferedDurationUs);
  boolean targetBufferSizeReached = allocator.getTotalBytesAllocated() >= targetBufferSize;
  boolean wasBuffering = isBuffering;
  isBuffering = bufferTimeState == BELOW_LOW_WATERMARK
      || (bufferTimeState == BETWEEN_WATERMARKS && isBuffering && !targetBufferSizeReached);
  if (priorityTaskManager != null && isBuffering != wasBuffering) {
    if (isBuffering) {
    } else {
  return isBuffering;

At the first stage we continuing loading until maxBufferUs is reached as below.


Since then isBuffering = false and bufferTimeState == BETWEEN_WATERMARKS; so shouldContinueLoading() returns false as below.


Finally, when bufferTimeState == BELOW_LOW_WATERMARK again we recover the download, as the figure below.


As per the flow described, you could see within the period of [t1, t3] actually we DO NOT load anymore. Therefore you may meet the condition, for example to have merely ~ 15 seconds buffering.

Besides, there is a limit upon buffering size. In short, typically the buffering data will be from 15 to 30 second if your connection speed is good enough.

How to enlarge the buffer?

Remove the upper limit by applying ‘Drip – Feeding’ method.

isBuffering = bufferTimeState == BELOW_LOW_WATERMARK
    || (bufferTimeState == BETWEEN_WATERMARKS
         * commented below line to achieve drip-feeding method for better caching. once you are below maxBufferUs, do fetch immediately.
         * Added by Sri
        /* && isBuffering */
        && !targetBufferSizeReached);

Also enlarge maxBufferUs & minBufferUs

 * To increase buffer time and size.
public static int VIDEO_BUFFER_SCALE_UP_FACTOR = 4;
minBufferUs = VIDEO_BUFFER_SCALE_UP_FACTOR * minBufferMs * 1000L;
maxBufferUs = VIDEO_BUFFER_SCALE_UP_FACTOR * maxBufferMs * 1000L;

checkout the CustomLoadControl for code reference.

You can add below log in shouldContinueLoading() to verify the improvement before and after.

Log.e("CustomLoadControl","current buff Dur: "+bufferedDurationUs+",max buff:" + maxBufferUs +" shouldContinueLoading: "+isBuffering);

Cool. yeah!!

Hope you enjoyed both of these articles. If you are ExoPlayer lover, do try these hacks (github demo) and leave me your feedback.

ExoPlayer Hacks: Part 1 – Stats For Nerds

Google’s ExoPlayer is best in class media player for Android and it supports many features which are not currently supported by stock MediaPlayer.

Best part about Exo is it’s  OpenSource-ness 🙂

In this series of blog posts I’m gonna walk through a couple of useful hacks/customisations on some of Exo components:

  • Stats For Nerds – Part 1
  • Improved Buffering – Part 2

Find the demo on github which covers both features.

Stats for Nerds:


With Adaptive streaming techniques(HLS, Smooth, DASH), playback is heavily relied on connection speed, meaning resolution changes to adapt to fluctuations in bandwidth which means data consumption varies with time.

As a geek I’ve wondered what’s my n/w consumption, conn speed & sometimes buffer length when I stream a video online. Youtube on Chrome answered these concerns with ‘Stats For Nerd’ mode which depicts all those stats using simple dynamic charts and I found it intriguing. So I decided to do something similar on ExoPlayer and turned out it’s easier than I thought.

Which Stats?

  • Connection Speed:
  • Network Activity
  • Buffer Health
  • Dropped Frames
  • Video & Screen Resolutions

Code Please

  • Connection speed & n/w activity can be obtained by passing BandwidthMeter.EventListener while creating DefaultBandwidthMeter object.
bandwidthMeter = new DefaultBandwidthMeter(mUiUpdateHandler, new BandwidthMeter.EventListener() {
    public void onBandwidthSample(int elapsedMs, long bytes, long bitrate) {
        bitrateEstimate = bitrate;
        bytesDownloaded = bytes;
  • ExoPlayer exposes all available Tracks and their corresponding Formats and setting a Video debug listener will give update you whenever input video format changes. Format is a container of all meta data related to a Video Rendition (width, height, bitrate etc.)
  • Dropped frames can be obtained by Video debug listener too.
player.setVideoDebugListener(new VideoRendererEventListener() {
    public void onVideoInputFormatChanged(Format format) {
        currentVideoFormat = format;

    public void onDroppedFrames(int count, long elapsedMs) {
        droppedFrames += count;

 Buffer health & LoadControl

LoadControl is an Exo Component interface to control buffering of Media and there is a DefaultLoadControl in SDK which takes of when to start buffering and for how long.

We can create our version of DefaultLoadControl with an event listener & a handler to notify player on a buffer data. Check CustomLoadControl class for more info.

player = ExoPlayerFactory.newSimpleInstance(renderersFactory, trackSelector, new CustomLoadControl(new CustomLoadControl.EventListener() {
    public void onBufferedDurationSample(long bufferedDurationUs) {
        bufferedDurationMs = bufferedDurationUs;
}, mUiUpdateHandler));

OK. How to draw those awesome charts?

MPAndroidChart is a second to none charting library in Android and it covers all our charting requirements with no exceptions.

Create a Handler to repetitively call to itself every 500ms to update speed & buffer data and N/W activity has to be updated atleast with 1100ms so that updates wont overlap.

private void startPlayerStats() {

protected void depictPlayerStats() {
    if (!canShowStats())
    String buffer = DemoUtil.getFormattedDouble((bufferedDurationMs / Math.pow(10, 6)), 1);
    String brEstimate = DemoUtil.getFormattedDouble((bitrateEstimate / Math.pow(10, 3)), 1);
    updateStatChart(player_stats_health_chart, Float.parseFloat(buffer), ColorTemplate.getHoloBlue(), "Buffer Health: " + buffer + " s");
    updateStatChart(player_stats_speed_chart, Float.parseFloat(brEstimate), Color.LTGRAY, "Conn Speed: " + DemoUtil.humanReadableByteCount(
            bitrateEstimate, true, true) + "ps");
    player_stats_size.setText("Screen Dimensions: " + simpleExoPlayerView.getWidth() + " x " + simpleExoPlayerView.getHeight());
    player_stats_res.setText("Video Resolution: " + (null != currentVideoFormat ? (currentVideoFormat.width + " x " + currentVideoFormat.height) : "NA"));
    player_stats_dropframes.setText("Dropped Frames: " + droppedFrames);
    mUiUpdateHandler.sendEmptyMessageDelayed(MSG_UPDATE_STATS, 500);

protected void depictPlayerNWStats() {
    if (!canShowStats())
    updateStatChart(player_stats_nw_chart, (float) (bytesDownloaded / Math.pow(10, 3)), Color.CYAN, "Network Activity: " + DemoUtil.humanReadableByteCount(
            bytesDownloaded, true));
    bytesDownloaded = 0;
    mUiUpdateHandler.sendEmptyMessageDelayed(MSG_UPDATE_STATS_NW_ONLY, 1100);


Follow my next blog in series for Part 2 – Improved Buffering.

SHAREthem – Android library to simulate How SHAREit works

ic_launcherSHAREthem library makes File Sharing & Transfer a lot easier!!

Peer-to-Peer transfers are the best way to go when it comes to file sharing.

SHAREit App takes full advantage of it. I’ve seen many questions on StackOverFlow asking about how SHAREit works. (Just search shareit on SO and you’ll see a pageful of questions asking about the same thing). Well,  it’s easy to assume that they use Android Wi-Fi P2P libraries because android developer site says those libraries are used for P2P.

But, if you observe SHAREit app creates a Hotspot on receiver side which defeats the whole purpose of using Android P2P libraries and more over SHAREit works all the way from Android 2.2(at least it used to) where as Android P2P libraries works only on and above Android 4.0. May be they are using combination of both to take leverage of platform apis. But I’m gonna talk about Hotspot way since SHAREthem library is built around it.

UPDATE: Added Android-8, OREO support with default Android Hotspot functionality which comes with password protected Hotspot and so Receiver has to explicitly key-in password, inline with SHAREit functionality.

That’s enough, tell me how it works 🙄

Also app is posted on Playstore (Still in Beta). Click on the badge to see it action.

SHAREthem library facilitates file sharing and transfers using below components. Library also supports app to web sharing if receiver has no app installed :

  • Hotspot Controller
    HC uses Java Reflection since there are NO APIs available on Android for enabling/disabling Hotspots. Functionalities include:

    • Controller creates an OPEN Wifi hotspot configuration with an SSID which can intercepted by Receivers to recognize SHAREthem senders including port and sender names.
    • Restores user Hotspot-Configuration when Share mode is disabled
    • Provides a list of connected WiFi clients.
  • SHAREthem Server

A tiny HTTP server extended from NanoHttpd, serves the sender data to receivers using IP address as hostname and works on port assigned by user or system by default.

  • SHAREthem Service

Android service which manages lifecycle of SHAREthem-server and also handles foreground notification with stop action.

  • UI (Activities)
    Android activities to handle share/receive actions

    • Receiver – provides UI to list the files available to download. Posts a download request to Android Download Manager to start file downloads.
    • Sender – displays IP, Port & connected clients info along with file transfer status for each connected client(Receiver).

How to use it? Talk some code!!

I’ve made a DEMO App using SHAREthem library to demonstrate Sender & Receiver Modes. Demo Activity uses a nice library called android-filepicker for selecting files on Device.

Github link is included at the end of this article. Feel free to checkout.

Sender Mode:

To start Sender mode, you need to pass an array of strings holding references of files you want to share along with port(optional) and sender name using an Intent to start SHAREthemActivity

Intent intent = new Intent(getApplicationContext(), ShareActivity.class);
intent.putExtra(ShareService.EXTRA_FILE_PATHS, files);
intent.putExtra(ShareService.EXTRA_PORT, 52287);
intent.putExtra(ShareService.EXTRA_SENDER_NAME, "Sri");

ShareService.EXTRA_FILE_PATHS: holds location references to local files on device.
In Sample app of Demo project on github i’ve used a nice looking File Explorer library to select files on device memory to share.
ShareService.EXTRA_PORT (optional): incase if you want to start SHAREserver on a specific port. Passing 0 or skipping this lets system to assign its own. One of the downside of letting system to do this is SSID may be not the same for a subsequent Sharing session. (PORT number is used in algorithm to generate SSID)
ShareService.EXTRA_SENDER_NAME (optional): used by Receiver to display connection information.

ShareActivity invokes SHAREService which in turn starts an instance of SHAREServer with device IP as wildcard address and port if unspecified assigned by system. On successful server setup, Hotspot Controller creates an OPEN WIfi Configuration with an SSID using combination of Android ID, Port number and Sender Name.

Activity scans for connected clients constantly using HotspotControl’s methods and adds them list as shown in below screenshots:

Receiver Mode:

Starting receiver mode is pretty simple as no intent extras needed. Receiver Activity starts scanning for senders automatically, you can turn off Receiver mode anytime though.

startActivity(new Intent(getApplicationContext(), ReceiverActivity.class));

Receiver scans for SHAREthem wifi based on naming convention used and fetches files information from SHAREthem server after successful connection. Here is the glance of Server method of server:

public Response serve(IHTTPSession session) {
    Response res = null;
    try {
        String url = session.getUri();
        Log.d(TAG, "request uri: " + url);
        if (TextUtils.isEmpty(url) || url.equals("/") || url.contains("/open"))
            res = createHtmlResponse();
        else if (url.equals("/status"))
            res = new NanoHTTPD.Response(Response.Status.OK, NanoHTTPD.MIME_PLAINTEXT, "Available");
        else if (url.equals("/apk"))
            res = createApkResponse(session.getHeaders().get("http-client-ip"));
        else if (url.equals("/logo") || url.equals("/favicon.ico"))
            res = createLogoResponse();
        else if (url.equals("/files"))
            res = createFilePathsResponse();
        else if (url.contains("/file/")) {
            int index = Integer.parseInt(url.replace("/file/", ""));
            if (index != -1)
                res = createFileResponse(m_filesTobeHosted[index], session.getHeaders().get("http-client-ip"));
    } catch (Exception ioe) {
        res = createErrorResponse(Response.Status.FORBIDDEN, ioe.getMessage());
    } finally {
        if (null == res)
            res = createForbiddenResponse();
    res.addHeader("Accept-Ranges", "bytes");
    res.addHeader("Access-Control-Allow-Origin", "*");
    res.addHeader("Access-Control-Allow-Methods", "POST, GET, OPTIONS");
    return res;

Receiver activity embeds FilesListingFragment which is responsible for listing of Sender files and enqueue download request to Android Download Manager

Does it work on WEB browsers too?

Yes indeed. SHAREthem server serves an HTML file response which fires download requests upon selecting links. So all you need to do is key in


on a web browser after connecting to hotspot. screen-shot-2017-01-09-at-11-42-31-pm

Nice. Any catches?

Yes, few

  • increasing targetSdkVersion version might impact behaviour of this library
    if targetSdkVersion >= 23
  • ShareActivity has to check for System Write permissions to proceed
  • Get Wifi Scan results method needs GPS to be ON and COARSE location permission.
  • library checks the targetSdkVersion to take care of above scenarios if targetSdkVersion > 20
  • If an application’s targetSdkVersion is LOLLIPOP or newer, network communication may not use Wi-Fi even if Wi-Fi is connected.
    this might impact when Receiver connectivity to SHAREthem hotspot, library checks for this scenario and prompts user to disable data
    For more info: https://developer.android.com/reference/android/net/wifi/WifiManager.html#enableNetwork(int, boolean)

Known issues??

  • On some devices with API level 21 and above, “`connectToOpenHotspot()“` method on WifiUtils disables other Wifi networks in-order to connect to SHAREthem WIfi Hotspot. Ideally increasing priority should be enough for making WifiConfiguration but recent Android version are making it hard for Wifi n.ws with no internet connectivity.
  • Enabling SHARE mode when System Wifi Hotspot is already active (enabled by user via Settings) might not work.


  • Receiver Connected but not able to display Sender info: As mentioned above, on API level 21 & above, n/w communication may not use Wifi with no internet access if MOBILE DATA has internet access. Library can prompt to disable MOBILE DATA if this scenario is met, but not yet implemented.
    So turn-off mobile to make Receiver work.
  • ReceiverActivity cannot connect to SHAREthem Wifi: Receiver tries to connect to SHAREthem Wifi in every way possible, but throws an error dialog if it fails. Dialog says to manually select SHAREthem Wifi on WIfi Settings.
    As a last resort, you can always manually connect to Sender Wifi.

Are you gonna give me Source Code??

Sure thing. Just remember that it is licensed under  Apache License Version 2.0 🙂

Github link: https://github.com/Sriharia/share-them

Please leave your feedback in comments. Thanks

Multistate ImageView in Android

As per Android design guidelines every interactive element in layout has to have a touch feedback and so do image views.

Since my app has complicated UI with multiple imageviews, I’ve dealt this with a custom imageview overriding onTouchEvent method to intercept touch events.

Trick is to apply ColorFilter on ACTION_DOWN and clear it on ACTION_UP or ACTION_CANCEL events. (make sure you return true in onTouchEvent or actions may get delegated to click action and ACTION_UP may never get called)

To handle onclick listener actions, calculate touch event duration and distance from initial touch coordinates on ACTIONUP event and invoke performClick() accordingly.

Here is the code snippet for reference:

 private static final int MAX_CLICK_DISTANCE = 15;  
      private long pressStartTime;  
      private float pressedX;  
      private float pressedY;  
      private static final int MAX_CLICK_DURATION = 500;  
      public boolean onTouchEvent(MotionEvent event) {  
           if (null == getDrawable())  
                return super.onTouchEvent(event);  
           switch (event.getAction()) {  
           case MotionEvent.ACTION_DOWN: {  
                pressStartTime = System.currentTimeMillis();  
                pressedX = event.getX();  
                pressedY = event.getY();  
                // overlay is white with transparency of 0x40 (25)  
                getDrawable().setColorFilter(0x40ffffff, PorterDuff.Mode.SRC_ATOP);  
           case MotionEvent.ACTION_UP:  
                long pressDuration = System.currentTimeMillis() - pressStartTime;  
                if (pressDuration < MAX_CLICK_DURATION  
                          && distance(pressedX, pressedY, event.getX(), event.getY()) < MAX_CLICK_DISTANCE) {  
           case MotionEvent.ACTION_CANCEL: {  
                // clear the overlay  
           return true;  
      private static float distance(float x1, float y1, float x2, float y2) {  
           float dx = x1 - x2;  
           float dy = y1 - y2;  
           float distanceInPx = (float) Math.sqrt(dx * dx + dy * dy);  
           return pxToDp(distanceInPx);  
      private static float density;  
      private static float pxToDp(float px) {  
           return px / density;  

Above code looks for minimum touch duration of 500ms and maximum movement of 15dp to perform click actions.

Visual feedback looks like:


Here is the demo project on github with custom imageview to support pressed state changes.

Hope this helps.